Thursday, 27 April 2017

Evaluation

I have really enjoyed doing anatomy and physiology in the form of blogs, I feel it has given me something to do peacefully at home following class lessons rather than trying to ram the learning and work into one lesson I could go to class absorb the information then return home to take in any extra information then produce a blog.

 I most enjoyed learning about how to do the blogs my first blog post was quite long but as the year went on they got shorter and more to the point. I 'waffle' much less now and this can be seen in all my word at University, not just my blogs, it's a good skill to learn and these blogs have helped me to learn it. My favorite anatomy and physiology lessons were when we learn about a whole topic such as the skin lessons where we learned lots and lots about the skin but I could go home and hone in on one particular part I found interesting such as skin tanning.

It was nice to have the freedom to be in class but then go home and pick exactly what we wanted to write about. I feel the blogs have helped me understand the human body more and as a result understand makeup more, I can see how everything from the digestive system to nails can all be related to makeup and how important it is to take care of clients as well as stay realistic when doing injury special effects, I have greatly enjoyed the blogs as they're all about a minute long to read and I will keep them online forever so if I am in need of a quick top up on a topic I can go back read it in a minute and remember.

The human digestive system

The food we eat has to be broken down into other substances that our bodies can use. This is called digestion. Without digestion, we could not absorb food into our bodies and use it. Digestion happens in the digestive system, which begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract—also called the digestive tract—and the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. The hollow organs that make up the GI tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine—which includes the rectum—and anus. Food enters the mouth and passes to the anus through the hollow organs of the GI tract. The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are the solid organs of the digestive system. The digestive system helps the body digest food. 
After we swallow, our food passes through these organs in turn: esophagus or gullet stomach small intestine large intestine Stages of digestion Different things happen to food as it passes through the digestive system: food is digested in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine digested food is absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine excess water is absorbed back into the body in the large intestine any undigested food passes out of the anus as feces when we go to the toilet 
Information from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z9pv34j/revision https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/digestive-system-how-it-works 
Image from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z9pv34j/revision

Tanning of the skin

UVA radiation is what makes people tan. UVA rays penetrate to the lower layers of the epidermis, where they trigger cells called melanocytes to produce melanin. Melanin is the brown pigment that causes tanning. Melanin is the body's way of protecting skin from burning.Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned. It is most often a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or from artificial sources, such as a tanning lamp found in indoor tanning beds. Some people tan or sunburn more easily than others. A suntan results from the body's natural defense mechanism kicking in against damaging ultraviolet sun rays. When the defenses are overwhelmed, a toxic reaction occurs, resulting in sunburn. The defense mechanism is a pigment called melanin, which is produced by cells in our skin called melanocytes. Is there such as thing as a healthy tan? Simply put, no. There is no degree of tanning, whether from natural sunlight or artificial light, like tanning beds, that can be considered safe. Damage to your skin from the sun and tanning beds can happen in just minutes from exposure to ultraviolet rays.

Information from:
http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/tanning.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_tanning
http://www.livescience.com/38039-what-causes-sunburns.html
https://consults.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/06/03/is-there-such-a-thing-as-a-healthy-tan/?_r=0

Image from:
http://www.tantropics.com/how_skin_tans.htm

Aging skin

Aging skin looks thinner, paler, and clear (translucent). Large pigmented spots, including age spots, liver spots, or lentigos, may appear in sun-exposed areas.Changes in the connective tissue reduce the skin's strength and elasticity. This is known as elastosis. Over time, the dermis loses both collagen and elastin, so skin gets thinner and has trouble getting enough moisture to the epidermis. The fat in the subcutaneous layer that gives skin a plump appearance also begins to disappear, the epidermis starts to sag, and wrinkles form. The collagen and elastin fibers break, thicken, stiffen, clump together, and lose their elasticity. This results in wrinkles and aging lines. Finally, in our fifties, the skin becomes dry and is easily bruised, damaged, or broken because the sebaceous (oil) glands have decreased in size. Wrinkles are a natural part of the aging process. As people get older, their skin gets thinner, drier, and less elastic, and less able to protect itself from damage. This leads to wrinkles, creases, and lines on the skin. These fibers form the skin's connective tissue.

Information from:
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/174852.php
https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004014.htm
http://kidshealth.org/en/kids/wrinkles.html
http://dujs.dartmouth.edu/2013/01/why-does-your-skin-age/#.WQG6AIjyuUk
Image from:
 http://dujs.dartmouth.edu/2013/01/why-does-your-skin-age/layers-of-skin/#.WQG9qojyuUk

Monday, 24 April 2017

Types of prosthetics

There are three main types of prosthetics for a makeup artist. Medical prosthetic, cosmetic prosthetic and effect prosthetic. Medical prosthetics are artificial devices that replace injured or diseased body parts. These devices can be worn on the outside of the body or surgically implanted. Prosthetics are made of a variety of materials and serve a functional purpose. though they can also serve as both functional and cosmetic sometimes. Cosmetic prostheses typically do not improve function but are used to improve a person's appearance after the loss of a body part. An example of these is a false eye and silicone hands, fingers, breasts, feet and toes. Prosthetic implants are also available to correct facial deformities from disease or trauma.

Fact and information sources:
http://livehealthy.chron.com/different-types-prosthetics-1244.html

Thursday, 20 April 2017

The structure and composition of human nails

A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals. Nails are similar to claws in other animals. Fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protective protein called keratin. This protein is also found in the hooves and horns of different animals. Nails start in the nail root, hidden under the cuticle. When cells at the root of the nail grow, the new nail cells push out the old nail cells. These old cells flatten and harden, thanks to keratin, a protein made by these cells. The newly formed nail then slides along the nail bed, the flat surface under your nails. Fingernails and toenails are made of keratin - a protein made of dead cells, which is also the main protein found in hair. In fact, structurally nails are modified hair. Cutting your hair and fingernails doesn't hurt because they are dead - makes sense right. Horse hooves and bird feathers are also made of keratin. fingernails grow about one-tenth of an inch (3 millimeters) a month. If you lose a fingernail, it will take four to six months to regrow completely. Toenails take a year to a year and a half to grow from cuticle to tip.

Information from:
https://www.popsugar.com/fitness/5-Things-About-Your-Nails-401331
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nail_(anatomy)
https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/your-nails.html
http://health.howstuffworks.com/skin-care/nail-care/health/how-fast-do-nails-grow.htm

Image from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nail_(anatomy)#/media/File:Blausen_0406_FingerNailAnatomy.png

Evaluation

I have really enjoyed doing anatomy and physiology in the form of blogs, I feel it has given me something to do peacefully at home following...