Thursday, 27 April 2017


I have really enjoyed doing anatomy and physiology in the form of blogs, I feel it has given me something to do peacefully at home following class lessons rather than trying to ram the learning and work into one lesson I could go to class absorb the information then return home to take in any extra information then produce a blog.

 I most enjoyed learning about how to do the blogs my first blog post was quite long but as the year went on they got shorter and more to the point. I 'waffle' much less now and this can be seen in all my word at University, not just my blogs, it's a good skill to learn and these blogs have helped me to learn it. My favorite anatomy and physiology lessons were when we learn about a whole topic such as the skin lessons where we learned lots and lots about the skin but I could go home and hone in on one particular part I found interesting such as skin tanning.

It was nice to have the freedom to be in class but then go home and pick exactly what we wanted to write about. I feel the blogs have helped me understand the human body more and as a result understand makeup more, I can see how everything from the digestive system to nails can all be related to makeup and how important it is to take care of clients as well as stay realistic when doing injury special effects, I have greatly enjoyed the blogs as they're all about a minute long to read and I will keep them online forever so if I am in need of a quick top up on a topic I can go back read it in a minute and remember.

The human digestive system

The food we eat has to be broken down into other substances that our bodies can use. This is called digestion. Without digestion, we could not absorb food into our bodies and use it. Digestion happens in the digestive system, which begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract—also called the digestive tract—and the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. The hollow organs that make up the GI tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine—which includes the rectum—and anus. Food enters the mouth and passes to the anus through the hollow organs of the GI tract. The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are the solid organs of the digestive system. The digestive system helps the body digest food. 
After we swallow, our food passes through these organs in turn: esophagus or gullet stomach small intestine large intestine Stages of digestion Different things happen to food as it passes through the digestive system: food is digested in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine digested food is absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine excess water is absorbed back into the body in the large intestine any undigested food passes out of the anus as feces when we go to the toilet 
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Tanning of the skin

UVA radiation is what makes people tan. UVA rays penetrate to the lower layers of the epidermis, where they trigger cells called melanocytes to produce melanin. Melanin is the brown pigment that causes tanning. Melanin is the body's way of protecting skin from burning.Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned. It is most often a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or from artificial sources, such as a tanning lamp found in indoor tanning beds. Some people tan or sunburn more easily than others. A suntan results from the body's natural defense mechanism kicking in against damaging ultraviolet sun rays. When the defenses are overwhelmed, a toxic reaction occurs, resulting in sunburn. The defense mechanism is a pigment called melanin, which is produced by cells in our skin called melanocytes. Is there such as thing as a healthy tan? Simply put, no. There is no degree of tanning, whether from natural sunlight or artificial light, like tanning beds, that can be considered safe. Damage to your skin from the sun and tanning beds can happen in just minutes from exposure to ultraviolet rays.

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Aging skin

Aging skin looks thinner, paler, and clear (translucent). Large pigmented spots, including age spots, liver spots, or lentigos, may appear in sun-exposed areas.Changes in the connective tissue reduce the skin's strength and elasticity. This is known as elastosis. Over time, the dermis loses both collagen and elastin, so skin gets thinner and has trouble getting enough moisture to the epidermis. The fat in the subcutaneous layer that gives skin a plump appearance also begins to disappear, the epidermis starts to sag, and wrinkles form. The collagen and elastin fibers break, thicken, stiffen, clump together, and lose their elasticity. This results in wrinkles and aging lines. Finally, in our fifties, the skin becomes dry and is easily bruised, damaged, or broken because the sebaceous (oil) glands have decreased in size. Wrinkles are a natural part of the aging process. As people get older, their skin gets thinner, drier, and less elastic, and less able to protect itself from damage. This leads to wrinkles, creases, and lines on the skin. These fibers form the skin's connective tissue.

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Monday, 24 April 2017

Types of prosthetics

There are three main types of prosthetics for a makeup artist. Medical prosthetic, cosmetic prosthetic and effect prosthetic. Medical prosthetics are artificial devices that replace injured or diseased body parts. These devices can be worn on the outside of the body or surgically implanted. Prosthetics are made of a variety of materials and serve a functional purpose. though they can also serve as both functional and cosmetic sometimes. Cosmetic prostheses typically do not improve function but are used to improve a person's appearance after the loss of a body part. An example of these is a false eye and silicone hands, fingers, breasts, feet and toes. Prosthetic implants are also available to correct facial deformities from disease or trauma.

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Thursday, 20 April 2017

The structure and composition of human nails

A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals. Nails are similar to claws in other animals. Fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protective protein called keratin. This protein is also found in the hooves and horns of different animals. Nails start in the nail root, hidden under the cuticle. When cells at the root of the nail grow, the new nail cells push out the old nail cells. These old cells flatten and harden, thanks to keratin, a protein made by these cells. The newly formed nail then slides along the nail bed, the flat surface under your nails. Fingernails and toenails are made of keratin - a protein made of dead cells, which is also the main protein found in hair. In fact, structurally nails are modified hair. Cutting your hair and fingernails doesn't hurt because they are dead - makes sense right. Horse hooves and bird feathers are also made of keratin. fingernails grow about one-tenth of an inch (3 millimeters) a month. If you lose a fingernail, it will take four to six months to regrow completely. Toenails take a year to a year and a half to grow from cuticle to tip.

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Saturday, 25 March 2017

How the human ears work

It is in the cochlea that the vibrations transmitted from the eardrum through the tiny bones are converted into electrical impulses sent along the auditory nerve to the brain. The inner ear, which is surrounded by bone, also contains semicircular canals, which function more for purposes of equilibrium than hearing. The three parts of the ear anatomy are the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The inner ear is also called the cochlea. (‘Cochlea’ means ‘snail’ in Latin; the cochlea gets its name from its distinctive coiled up shape.)

The outer ear consists of the pinna, ear canal and eardrum
The middle ear consists of the ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) and ear drum
The inner ear consists of the cochlea, the auditory (hearing) nerve and the brain
Sound waves enter the ear canal and make the ear drum vibrate. This action moves the tiny chain of bones (ossicles – malleus, incus, stapes) in the middle ear. The last bone in this chain ‘knocks’ on the membrane window of the cochlea and makes the fluid in the cochlea move. The fluid movement then triggers a response in the hearing nerve.

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Wednesday, 15 March 2017

Continuity for makeup

Continuity ensures everything is seamless appearing together in a movie or tv show. Makeup consultations are for continuity it is also important for matters such as allergies, makeup plans, and makeup tests. Makeup needs to be consistent every day as many movies/tv shows are filmed over long periods of time. There is at least one person employed on a set for overall continuity but each department is also responsible for their own continuity, such as the makeup department must take care of makeup continuity and the sound department ensure all sound continuity etc. For the makeup department and the costume department, they will run on set in-between takes to ensure everything is correct so if some lipstick has rubbed off a bit they will refill in the color or if one hand was in a pocket a moment ago in the scene the same hand must go in the same pocket again.

Sometimes the client isn't always the one being consulted. Designers for shows or directors can be consulted on how they want certain looks/characters to be. Sometimes these consultations can be often over the course of filming so months or years. So continuity books are always kept.

All information and facts from Sarah Hobson of Hugh Baird university.

Wednesday, 1 March 2017

Human blood

Functions of blood. It supplies oxygen to cells and tissues. It supplies essential nutrients to cells, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. It removes carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid (waste products) Its white blood cells have antibodies which defend us from infection and foreign bodies. Scientists estimate the volume of blood in a human body to be approximately 7 percent of body weight. An average adult body with a weight of 150 to 180 pounds will contain approximately 4.7 to 5.5 liters (1.2 to 1.5 gallons) of blood. Each red blood cell is about 1/3 hemoglobin, by volume. Plasma is about 92% water, with plasma proteins as the most abundant solutes. The main plasma protein groups are albumins, globulins, and fibrinogens. The primary blood gasses are oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Blood makes up about 8% of the human body weight. Blood consist of cellular material 99% red blood cells, with white blood cells and platelets making up the remainder.

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Tuesday, 14 February 2017

The structure and composition of eyebrows - Explaining those on fleek hairs above the eyes

First and foremost, they protect your eyes. The shape of the brow ridge and the brows themselves channel sweat, rain, and moisture away from the eyeballs so your vision stays clear. Second, they're essential for nonverbal communication. Eyebrows help keep moisture out of our eyes when we sweat or walk around in the rain. The arch shape diverts the rain or sweat around to the sides of our face, keeping our eyes relatively dry.As a species we humans rely on our sight more than any other sense, and water can seriously blur vision. Eyebrows may also deflect debris and shield our eyes from the Sun. So while we slowly evolved to lose most of our body hair, our eyelashes and eyebrows remained. An estimated 90% of your hair follicles are typically in the growth phase at any given point. The hair in your eyebrows just experience a shorter cycle length, about 4 months (compared to 3 years for the hair on your head). The length of your hair is basically capped by the time which it has to grow. For a healthy young adult, the average time for tweezed hair to grow back at full hair length is 56 days.

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Saturday, 4 February 2017


Eyelashes protect the eye from debris and perform some of the same function as whiskers do on a cat or a mouse in the sense that they are sensitive to being touched, thus providing a warning that an object (such as an insect) is near the eye (which then closes reflexively).Like all the hair in the human body, eyelashes are a biological polymer, made up of about 10 per cent of water and 90 per cent of proteins, such as keratins, and melanins, the substances that give hair its color. And, as all the human hair, they are fed by follicles, located below the skin. There are many particles in the air, like dust and sand, which can get into your eyes and harm them. Your eyelashes help to tell your eyelids when they need to shut to protect the eyes. Along with your eyebrows and forehead, your eyelashes also help to shield your eyes from the bright light of the sun. The anagen phase is also called the growth phase. This is the phase when lashes are actively growing, and it lasts between 30 and 45 days. Only about 40 percent of the upper lashes and 15 percent of the lower lashes are in the anagen phase at any one time. Each lash will grow to a specific length and then stop.

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Saturday, 28 January 2017

The structure of hair

Hair is made of a tough protein called keratin. A hair follicle anchors each hair into the skin. The hair bulb forms the base of the hair follicle. In the hair bulb, living cells divide and grow to build the hair shaft. The hair is made up of 95% keratin, a fibrous, helicoidal protein (shaped like a helix) that forms part of the skin and all its appendages (body hair, nails, etc.).
Keratin is synthesized by keratinocytes and is insoluble in water, thus ensuring impermeability and protection for the hair. Some 18 amino acids can be found in the hair, such as proline, threonine, leucine and arginine. Keratin is particularly rich in cysteine (a type of sulfurated amino acid), which forms disulfide bonds between molecules, adding rigidity and resistance to the entire structure.

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Thursday, 19 January 2017

The human skeleton

It is composed of around 300 bones at birth – this total decreases to 206 bones by adulthood after some bones have fused together. The bone mass in the skeleton reaches maximum density around age 20. The human skeleton can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. skeletal system definition. The framework of the body, consisting of bones and other connective tissues, which protects and supports the body tissues and internal organs. Voluntary muscles are also called skeletal muscles as they are attached to bones, by rule, so as to move the bone hence the body. ... The skeletal system performs vital functions— support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to survive.

The main bones of the human skeleton are:
The Skull - Cranium, Mandible and Maxilla.
Shoulder girdle - clavicle and scapula.
Arm - humerus, radius and ulna.
Hand - Carpals, Metacarpals and Phalanges.
Chest - Sternum and Ribs.

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I have really enjoyed doing anatomy and physiology in the form of blogs, I feel it has given me something to do peacefully at home following...